Thứ Sáu, ngày 29 tháng 6 năm 2012

BẢNG PHÂN LOẠI DUNG MÔI

 
TABLE 1
Solvent
formula
boiling point (oC)
melting point (oC) 
density 
(g/mL)
solubility in H2O1  (g/100g)
relative
polarity2
eluant strength3
threshold limits4 (ppm)
vapor pressure 20oC (hPa)
acetic acid
C2H4O2
118
16.6
1.049
M
0.648
>1
10
15.3
acetone
C3H6O
56.2
-94.3
0.786
M
0.355
0.56
500
240
acetonitrile
C2H3N
81.6
-46
0.786
M
0.460
0.65
20
97
acetyl acetone
C5H8O2
140.4
-23
0.975
16
0.571


 3
2-aminoethanol
C2H7NO
170.9
10.5
1.018
M
0.651

3
0.53
aniline
C6H7N
184.4
-6.0
1.022
3.4
0.420

2
0.4
anisole
C7H8O
153.7
-37.5
0.996
0.10
0.198


 3.5*
benzene
C6H6
80.1
5.5
0.879
0.18
0.111
0.32
0.5
101
benzonitrile
C7H5N
205
-13
0.996
0.2
0.333

10
12
benzyl alcohol
C7H8O
205.4
-15.3
1.042
3.5
0.608


 0.094*
1-butanol
C4H10O
117.6
-89.5
0.81
7.7
0.586

20
6.3
2-butanol
C4H10O
99.5
-114.7
0.808
18.1
0.506

100
 18.3*
i-butanol
C4H10O
107.9
-108.2
0.803
8.5
0.552


 10.5*
2-butanone
C4H8O
79.6
-86.3
0.805
25.6
0.327
0.51
200
105
t-butyl alcohol 
C4H10O
82.2
25.5
0.786
M
0.389

100
41
carbon disulfide
CS2
46.3
-111.6
1.263
0.2
0.065
0.15
 10
400
carbon tetrachloride
CCl4
76.7
-22.4
1.594
0.08 
0.052
0.18
5
120
chlorobenzene
C6H5Cl
132
-45.6
1.106
0.05
0.188
0.30
10
12
chloroform 
CHCl3
61.2
-63.5
1.498
0.8
0.259

10
210
cyclohexane
C6H12
80.7
6.6
0.779
0.005
0.006
0.04
100
104
cyclohexanol
C6H12O
161.1
25.2
0.962
4.2
0.509

50
1.2
cyclohexanone
C6H10O
155.6
-16.4
0.948
2.3
0.281

25
5
di-n-butylphthalate
C16H22O4
340
-35
1.049
0.0011
0.272



1,1-dichloroethane
C2H4Cl2
57.3
-97.0
1.176
0.5
0.269

100
240
1,2-dichloroethane
C2H4Cl2
83.5
-35.4
1.235
0.87
0.327


 79*
diethylamine
C4H11N
56.3
-48
0.706
M
0.145
0.63
5
260
diethylene glycol
C4H10O3
245
-10
1.118
M
0.713


0.027
diglyme
C6H14O3
162
-64
0.945
M
0.244



dimethoxyethane (glyme)
C4H10O2
85
-58
0.868
M
0.231



N,N-dimethylaniline
C8H11N
194.2
2.4
0.956
0.14
0.179



dimethylformamide (DMF)
C3H7NO
153
-61
0.944
M
0.386

10
3.5
dimethylphthalate
C10H10O4
283.8
1
1.190
0.43
0.309



dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)
C2H6OS
189
18.4
1.092
M
0.444
0.75

 0.61*
dioxane 
C4H8O2
101.1
11.8
1.033
M
0.164
0.56
20
41
ethanol 
C2H6O
78.5
-114.1
0.789
M
0.654
0.88
100
59
ether
C4H10O
34.6
-116.3
0.713
7.5
0.117
0.38
400
587
ethyl acetate
C4H8O2
77
-83.6
0.894
8.7
0.228
0.58
400
97
ethyl acetoacetate
C6H10O3
180.4
-80
1.028
2.9
0.577


 0.78*
ethyl benzoate
C9H10O2
213
-34.6
1.047
0.07
0.228



ethylene glycol 
C2H6O2
197
-13
1.115
M
0.790
1.11

 0.092*
glycerin
C3H8O3
290
17.8
1.261
M
0.812



heptane
C7H16
98
-90.6
0.684
0.0003
0.012

400
48
1-heptanol
C7H16O
176.4
-35
0.819
0.17
0.549



hexane
C6H14
69
-95
0.655
0.0014
0.009
0.01
50
160
1-hexanol
C6H14O
158
-46.7
0.814
0.59
0.559


 0.22*
methanol
CH4O
64.6
-98
0.791
M
0.762
0.95
200
128
methyl acetate
C3H6O2
56.9
-98.1
 0.933
24.4
0.253

 200
220
methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE)
C5H12O
55.2
-109
0.741
4.8
0.124
0.20

 250*
methylene chloride
CH2Cl2
39.8
-96.7
1.326
1.32
0.309
0.42
50
475
1-octanol
C8H18O
194.4
-15
0.827
0.096
0.537



pentane
C5H12
36.1
-129.7
0.626
0.004 
0.009
0.00
600
573
1-pentanol
C5H12O
138.0
-78.2
0.814
2.2
0.568


 2.2*
2-pentanol
C5H12O
119.0
-50
0.810
4.5
0.488


 6.1*
3-pentanol
C5H12O
115.3
-8
0.821
5.1
0.463


 8.8*
2-pentanone
C5H10O
102.3
-76.9
0.809
4.3
0.321


 35.4*
3-pentanone
C5H12O
101.7
-39.8
0.814
3.4
0.265

200
 37.7*
1-propanol
C3H8O
97
-126
0.803
M
0.617
0.82

 21*
2-propanol
C3H8O
82.4
-88.5
0.785
M
0.546
0.82
400
44
pyridine
C5H5N
115.5
-42
0.982
M
0.302
0.71
5
20
tetrahydrofuran(THF)
C4H8O
66
-108.4
0.886
30
0.207
0.57
200
200
toluene
C7H8
110.6
-93
0.867
0.05
0.099
0.29
50
29
water
H2O
100.00
0.00
0.998
M
1.000
>>1

 17.5
water, heavy 
D2O
101.3
4
1.107
M
0.991


15
p-xylene
C8H10
138.3
13.3
0.861
0.02
0.074
0.26
100
15
1    M = miscible.
2    The values for relative polarity are normalized from measurements of solvent shifts of absorption spectra and were
      extracted from Christian Reichardt, Solvents and Solvent Effects in Organic Chemistry, Wiley-VCH Publishers, 3rd ed., 2003.
3     Snyder's empirical eluant strength parameter for alumina.  Extracted from Reichardt, page 495.
4   Threshold limits for exposure.  Extracted from Reichardt, pages 501-502.
*    25oC


TABLE 2
Solvent
formula
boiling point (oC)
melting point (oC) 
density 
(g/mL)
solubility in H2O1  (g/100g)
relative
polarity2
eluant strength3
threshold limits4 (ppm)
vapor pressure 20oC (hPa)
cyclohexane
C6H12
80.7
6.6
0.779
0.005
0.006
0.04
100
104
pentane
C5H12
36.1
-129.7
0.626
0.0039 
0.009
0.00
600
573
hexane
C6H14
69
-95
0.655
0.0014
0.009
0.01
50
160
heptane
C7H16
98
-90.6
0.684
0.0003
0.012

400
48
carbon tetrachloride
CCl4
76.7
-22.4
1.594
0.08 
0.052
0.18
5
120
carbon disulfide
CS2
46.3
-111.6
1.263
0.2
0.065
0.15
 10
400
p-xylene
C8H10
138.3
13.3
0.861
0.02
0.074
0.26
100
15
toluene
C7H8
110.6
-93
0.867
0.05
0.099
0.24
50
29
benzene
C6H6
80.1
5.5
0.879
0.18
0.111
0.32
0.5
101
ether
C4H10O
34.6
-116.3
0.713
7.5
0.117
0.38
400
587
methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE)
C5H12O
55.2
-109
0.741
4.8
0.124
0.20

 250*
diethylamine
C4H11N
56.3
-48
0.706
M
0.145
0.63
5
260
dioxane 
C4H8O2
101.1
11.8
1.033
M
0.164
0.56
20
41
N,N-dimethylaniline
C8H11N
194.2
2.4
0.956
0.14
0.179



chlorobenzene
C6H5Cl
132
-45.6
1.106
0.05
0.188
0.30
10
12
anisole
C7H8O
153.7
-37.5
0.996
0.10
0.198


 3.5*
tetrahydrofuran  (THF)
C4H8O
66
-108.4
0.886
30
0.207
0.57
200
200
ethyl acetate
C4H8O2
77
-83.6
0.894
8.7
0.228
0.57
400
97
ethyl benzoate
C9H10O2
213
-34.6
1.047
0.07
0.228



dimethoxyethane (glyme)
C4H10O2
85
-58
0.868
M
0.231



diglyme
C6H14O3
162
-64
0.945
M
0.244



methyl acetate
C3H6O2
56.9
-98.1
0.933
24.4
0.253

 200
220
chloroform 
CHCl3
61.2
-63.5
1.498
0.8
0.259
0.40
10
210
3-pentanone
C5H12O
101.7
-39.8
0.814
3.4
0.265

200
 37.7*
1,1-dichloroethane
C2H4Cl2
57.3
-97.0
1.176
0.5
0.269

100
240
di-n-butyl phthalate
C16H22O4
340
-35
1.049
0.0011
0.272



cyclohexanone
C6H10O
155.6
-16.4
0.948
2.3
0.281

25
5
pyridine
C5H5N
115.5
-42
0.982
M
0.302
0.71
5
20
dimethylphthalate
C10H10O4
283.8
1
1.190
0.43
0.309



methylene chloride
CH2Cl2
39.8
-96.7
1.326
1.32
0.309
0.42
50
475
2-pentanone
C5H10O
102.3
-76.9
0.809
4.3
0.321


 35.4*
2-butanone
C4H8O
79.6
-86.3
0.805
25.6
0.327
0.51
200
105
1,2-dichloroethane
C2H4Cl2
83.5
-35.4
1.235
0.87
0.327


  79*
benzonitrile
C7H5N
205
-13
0.996
0.2
0.333

10
12
acetone
C3H6O
56.2
-94.3
0.786
M
0.355
0.56
500
240
dimethylformamide (DMF)
C3H7NO
153
-61
0.944
M
0.386

10
3.5
t-butyl alcohol 
C4H10O
82.2
25.5
0.786
M
0.389

100
41
aniline
C6H7N
184.4
-6.0
1.022
3.4
0.420

2
0.4
dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)
C2H6OS
189
18.4
1.092
M
0.444
0.75

 0.61*
acetonitrile
C2H3N
81.6
-46
0.786
M
0.460
0.65
20
97
3-pentanol
C5H12O
115.3
-8
0.821
5.1
0.463


 8.8*
2-pentanol
C5H12O
119.0
-50
0.810
4.5
0.488


  6.1*
2-butanol
C4H10O
99.5
-114.7
0.808
 18.1
0.506

100
 18.3*
cyclohexanol
C6H12O
161.1
25.2
0.962
4.2
0.509

50
1.2
1-octanol
C8H18O
194.4
-15
0.827
0.096
0.537



2-propanol
C3H8O
82.4
-88.5
0.785
M
0.546
0.82
400
44
1-heptanol
C7H16O
176.4
-35
0.819
0.17
0.549



i-butanol
C4H10O
107.9
-108.2
0.803
8.5
0.552



1-hexanol
C6H14O
158
-46.7
0.814
0.59
0.559


 0.22*
1-pentanol
C5H12O
138.0
-78.2
0.814
2.2
0.568


  2.2*
acetyl acetone
C5H8O2
140.4
-23
0.975
16
0.571


  3
ethyl acetoacetate
C6H10O3
180.4
-80
1.028
2.9
0.577


  0.78*
1-butanol
C4H10O
117.6
-89.5
0.81
7.7
0.586

20
6.3
benzyl alcohol
C7H8O
205.4
-15.3
1.042
3.5
0.608


  0.094*
1-propanol
C3H8O
97
-126
0.803
M
0.617
0.82

  21*
acetic acid
C2H4O2
118
16.6
1.049
M
0.648
>1
10
15.3
2-aminoethanol
C2H7NO
170.9
10.5
1.018
M
0.651

3
0.53
ethanol 
C2H6O
78.5
-114.1
0.789
M
0.654
0.88
1000
59
diethylene glycol
C4H10O3
245
-10
1.118
M
0.713


0.027
methanol
CH4O
64.6
-98
0.791
M
0.762
0.95
200
128
ethylene glycol 
C2H6O2
197
-13
1.115
M
0.790
1.11


glycerin
C3H8O3
290
17.8
1.261
M
0.812



water, heavy 
D2O
101.3
4
1.107
M
0.991


 15
water
H2O
100.00
0.00
0.998
M
1.000
>>1

 17.5

------THC------
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1 nhận xét:

  1. những thông tin này rất có ích, vì người chuyên về hóa rất cần những thông tin này.Không biết bên anh có bán hóa chất lẻ không? nếu không thì có thể cung cấp địa chỉ các đại lý ?

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